There are two substantially different types of cellular concrete.
• Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC)
• Foamed Concrete (also known as foam concrete)
Autoclaved aerated concrete, also known under the brand name "Ytong" or " Siporex," can only be produced in special plants. The highly explosive element hydrogen, created through the reaction of cement and aluminum, is used as an expanding agent to build pores or air in the concrete. This process is very hard to control, requires expensive amounts of energy and demands a high investment in immobile machinery.
Foamed concrete, the other type of cellular light weight concrete, is produced with harmless foam, which is mixed into the slurry. Only a foaming agent and a foam generator combined with a mixer and pump are necessary in order to apply this technology. The foam produced with generator and agent is mixed into the prepared concrete slurry. This procedure is by far simpler and easier to control, needs less energy, is faster, and can be applicated also in mobile systems. This technology allows the reduction of the gross density of concrete from 2400 kg/m³ as low as 75 kg/m³.
Luca Industries International has developed various types of foamed concrete:
Foaming agents are classified by the basis of the active ingredient:
• Enzyme based (new technology by Luca Industries International)
• Protein based Surfactant based
• Surfactant based (synthetic foaming agents)
Enzyme based foaming agents are a new and innovative foaming agent technology by Luca Industries International. LithoFoam® consists of highly active proteins of biotechnological origin and is not based on the unattractive protein hydrolysis process. LithoFoam® is superior to all other types of foaming agents with its outstanding quality, properties, very competitive price and its neutral, technical odor.Protein based standard foaming agents are made by protein hydrolysis from animal proteins out of horn, blood, bones and other remainders of animal carcasses of cows and pigs. This leads not only to occasional variations in quality due to the differing raw materials used in different batches, but also to the very intense stench of such foaming agents.
Surfactant based foaming agents are purely chemical products with constant quality, but until today with insufficient properties and low efficiency for the manufacturing of foam concrete.